[62][63] He was honoured by the Royal Geographical Society, who awarded him a Gold Medal; a proposal that the medal be smaller than that earlier awarded to Captain Scott was not acted on. [e][72], Any future resumption by Shackleton of the quest for the South Pole depended on the results of Scott's Terra Nova Expedition, which left from Cardiff in July 1910. Ernest loved reading, and had a great imagination. Shackleton always kept the members of the crew informed, and never left any member out (80). [25] Scott chose Shackleton to accompany Wilson and himself on the expedition's southern journey, a march southwards to achieve the highest possible latitude in the direction of the South Pole. (, Beardmore's help took the form of guaranteeing a loan at Clydesdale Bank, for £7,000 (2008 equivalent approx. Shackleton reluctantly agreed to look for winter quarters at either the Barrier Inlet—which Discovery had briefly visited in 1902—or King Edward VII Land. A new podcast by Dr. Juliana Adelman from the School of History and Geography and Kevin Kenny from the Shackleton Museum in Athy asks, Shackleton wrote about what is needed to survive the adversities which life throws up. Although some of his former crew members had not received all their pay from the Endurance expedition, many of them signed on with their former "Boss". - Ernest Shackleton So was born what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctica expedition of 1914 - 1917. [9] The aim was the conquest of both the geographical South Pole and the South Magnetic Pole. The meteorologist was Captain L. Hussey, also an able banjo player. Ernest Shackleton was a well-known Irish and British explorer during the first two decades of the twentieth century. The story that would unfold was to be beyond any expectations and completely different to that planned. 3. [31] Although in public they remained mutually respectful and cordial,[34] according to biographer Roland Huntford, Shackleton's attitude to Scott turned to "smouldering scorn and dislike"; salvage of wounded pride required "a return to the Antarctic and an attempt to outdo Scott". Shackleton's will was proven in London on 12 May 1922. Tom Crean was in more immediate charge as head dog-handler. [161] Blended with a parallel story of a struggling composer, the play retells the adventure of Endurance in detail, incorporating photos and videos of the journey. To this end, he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–1917. [57], In 1910, Shackleton made a series of three recordings describing the expedition using an Edison phonograph. [44] Before leaving England, he had been pressured to give an undertaking to Scott that he would not base himself in the McMurdo area, which Scott was claiming as his own field of work. [2] He rapidly became a role model for leadership as one who, in extreme circumstances, kept his team together in a survival story described by cultural historian Stephanie Barczewski as "incredible".[3]. Filchner had left Bremerhaven in May 1911; in December 1912, the news arrived from South Georgia that his expedition had failed. [66] The heroism was also claimed by Ireland: the Dublin Evening Telegraph's headline read "South Pole Almost Reached By An Irishman",[66] while the Dublin Express spoke of the "qualities that were his heritage as an Irishman".[66]. and I said 'Yes darling, as far as I am concerned'". Yelcho, commanded by Captain Luis Pardo, and the British whaler Southern Sky reached Elephant Island on 30 August 1916, at which point the men had been isolated there for four and a half months, and Shackleton quickly evacuated all 22 men. Ernest Shackleton was an Antarctic explorer that is often cited for his excellent leadership skills. Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874, in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was one of the main polar explorers of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Dying heavily in debt, Shackleton's small estate consisted of personal effects to the value of £556 2s. - Ernest Shackleton So was born what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctica expedition of 1914 - 1917. Of later independent fame was the photographer Frank Hurley, known on this mission for his perilous shots. At his wife's request, he was buried there. The three on the other side of the island were soon picked up, but it took months to rescue the men on South Georgia. Its … [55] They arrived at Hut Point just in time to catch the ship. This was not his family’s profession. [152] In October 2015, Shackleton's decorations and medals were auctioned; the sale raised £585,000. Born close to the village of Kilkea, between Castledermot and Athy, in the south of County Kildare in 1874, Ernest Shackleton is renowned for his courage, his commitment to the welfare of his comrades and his immense contribution to exploration and geographical discovery. [10] The options available were a Royal Navy cadetship at Britannia, which Shackleton could not afford; the mercantile marine cadet ships Worcester and Conway; or an apprenticeship "before the mast" on a sailing vessel. It was stuck in high pressure pack ice that only occurs when the ocean freezes over and there are strong wind or current pressures. [115] In the midst of seeking capital, his plans foundered when Northern Russia fell to Bolshevik control. Other crew included James, Hussey, Greenstreet, a carpenter Harry McNish, and a biologist named Clark. Led by explorer and environmental scientist Tim Jarvis, the team was assembled at the request of Alexandra Shackleton, Sir Ernest's granddaughter, who felt the trip would honour her grandfather's legacy. The Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition of 1914–1917 is considered to be the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. [13] On 17 February 1901, his appointment as third officer to the expedition's ship Discovery was confirmed; on 4 June he was commissioned into the Royal Navy, with the rank of sub-lieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve. The expedition's other main accomplishments included the first ascent of Mount Erebus, and the discovery of the approximate location of the South Magnetic Pole, reached on 16 January 1909, by Edgeworth David, Douglas Mawson, and Alistair Mackay. An Interview with Alexandra Shackleton Sir Ernest could do far worse than have as his only granddaughter the Honorable Alexandra Shackleton. Visiting history on South Georgia Island, Ernest Shackleton's final resting place This tiny south Atlantic island is the last resting place of one the world's greatest polar explorers, Ernest Shackleton. in Morrell and Capparell 146). On 8 May, thanks to Worsley's navigational skills, the cliffs of South Georgia came into sight, but hurricane-force winds prevented the possibility of landing. Also, members of his team climbed Mount Erebus, the most active Antarctic volcano. Upon his death, he was lauded in the press but was thereafter largely forgotten, while the heroic reputation of his rival Scott was sustained for many decades. What Did Shackleton Do? [147], In 1993 Trevor Potts re-enacted the Boat Journey from Elephant Island to South Georgia in honour of Sir Ernest Shackleton, totally unsupported, in a replica of the James Caird. Shackleton himself was safe, but he did not forget his stranded men. A number of medals awarded to Antarctic explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton raise £585,000 at a London auction. [136], During the ensuing decades Shackleton's status as a polar hero was generally outshone by that of Captain Scott, whose polar party had by 1925 been commemorated on more than 30 monuments in Britain alone, including stained glass windows, statues, busts and memorial tablets. [11] In August 1894, he passed his examination for second mate and accepted a post as third officer on a tramp steamer of the Welsh Shire Line. [123] When the party arrived in Rio de Janeiro, Shackleton suffered a suspected heart attack. After a medical examination (which proved inconclusive),[32] Scott decided to send Shackleton home on the relief ship Morning, which had arrived in McMurdo Sound in January 1903. The party was in high spirits, despite the difficult conditions; Shackleton's ability to communicate with each man kept the party happy and focused.[51]. In the preface to his 1922 book The Worst Journey in the World, Apsley Cherry-Garrard, one of Scott's team on the Terra Nova Expedition, wrote: "For a joint scientific and geographical piece of organisation, give me Scott; for a Winter Journey, Wilson; for a dash to the Pole and nothing else, Amundsen: and if I am in the devil of a hole and want to get out of it, give me Shackleton every time". [145] In Boston, a "Shackleton School" was set up on "Outward Bound" principles, with the motto "The Journey is Everything". In 1905, Shackleton became a shareholder in a speculative company that aimed to make a fortune transporting Russian troops home from the Far East. [67] The reality was that the expedition had left Shackleton deeply in debt, unable to meet the financial guarantees he had given to backers. [42] Shackleton by this time was making no secret of his ambition to return to Antarctica at the head of his own expedition. Born close to the village of Kilkea, between Castledermot and Athy, in the south of County Kildare in 1874, Ernest Shackleton is renowned for his courage, his commitment to the welfare of his comrades and his immense contribution to exploration and geographical discovery. Thus physicist Reginald James was asked if he could sing;[79] others were accepted on sight because Shackleton liked the look of them, or after the briefest of interrogations. He identified, “Shackleton is recognised as a role model for his leadership in times of crisis, most notably the. [74], Shackleton published details of his new expedition, grandly titled the "Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition", early in 1914. The plan was to sail his ship, the Endurance, to Argentina, then on to Antarctica, then walk across the continent where another crew would pick them up. [50] After considerable weather delays, Shackleton's base was eventually established at Cape Royds, about 24 miles (39 km) north of Hut Point. [142], In 2001 Margaret Morrell and Stephanie Capparell presented Shackleton as a model for corporate leadership in their book Shackleton's Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer. E xplorer Explorer Sir Raymond Priestley said: "For scientific discovery give me [Robert Falcon] Scott; for speed and efficiency of travel give me [Roald] Amundsen; but when disaster strikes and all hope is gone, get down on your knees and pray for [Ernest] Shackleton.". Shackleton's earliest days were spent on his family's farm in Ireland, where he was born on February 15, 1874. The Endurance 1914 – 1916 expedition has become one of the greatest epics of human survival. About Ernest Shackleton. His fondest dream was to make a name for himself. Shackleton's first experience of the polar regions was as third officer on Captain Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition of 1901–1904, from which he was sent home early on health grounds, after he and his companions Scott and Edward Adrian Wilson set a new southern record by marching to latitude 82°S. ernest shackleton achieved many things but the one he is most famous for is the endurance expedition. Although it is likely that Norwegian whalers had previously crossed at other points on ski, no one had attempted this particular route before. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton was born to Anglo-Irish parents on February 15, 1874 in Co. Kildare, Ireland, with the family moving to Sydenham in London 10 years later. They found that the Barrier Inlet had expanded to form a large bay, in which were hundreds of whales, which led to the immediate christening of the area as the Bay of Whales. Longstaff, impressed by Shackleton's keenness, recommended him to Sir Clements Markham, the expedition's overlord, making it clear that he wanted Shackleton accepted. Appointment to a military expedition to Murmansk obliged him to return home again, before departing for northern Russia. "; and men, provisions and equipment were transferred to camps on the ice. [126], Macklin, who conducted the postmortem, concluded that the cause of death was atheroma of the coronary arteries exacerbated by "overstrain during a period of debility". Hussey returned to South Georgia with the body on the steamer Woodville, and on 5 March 1922, Shackleton was buried in the Grytviken cemetery, South Georgia, after a short service in the Lutheran church,[128] with Edward Binnie officiating. In 1921, he led the Shackleton–Rowett Expedition. Shackleton's earliest days were spent on his family's farm in Ireland, where he was born on February 15, 1874. £350,000), not through an outright gift. [7], From early childhood, Shackleton was a voracious reader, a pursuit which sparked a passion for adventure. [71], None of these enterprises prospered, and his main source of income was his earnings from lecture tours. [48] In accordance with Shackleton's promise to Scott, the ship headed for the eastern sector of the Great Ice Barrier, arriving there on 21 January 1908. [148] In 2002, Channel 4 produced Shackleton, a TV serial depicting the 1914 expedition with Kenneth Branagh in the title role. He is best known for his 1914-1916 attempt to traverse the Antarctic which, although unsuccessful, became famous as a story of remarkable perseverance and survival. [13], The British National Antarctic Expedition, known as the Discovery expedition after the ship Discovery, was the brainchild of Sir Clements Markham, president of the Royal Geographical Society, and had been many years in preparation. Morale matters: Motivate the group and the individual. Disaster struck this expedition when its ship, Endurance, became trapped in pack ice and was slowly crushed before the shore parties could be landed. [35] Instead, he became a journalist, working for the Royal Magazine, but he found this unsatisfactory. [18] Shackleton accepted this, even though his own background and instincts favoured a different, more informal style of leadership. Conceived by Sir Ernest Shackleton, the expedition was an attempt to make the first land crossing of the Antarctic continent. He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. [162], "Shackleton" redirects here. Shackleton later wrote, "if we did not make it to South Georgia in that time we were sure to go under." He was destined to become a doctor, according to his father, but Shackleton instead joined the merchant navy when he was 16 and qualified as a master mariner in 1898. Ernest Shackleton had already made a name for himself as an intrepid explorer, having reached a record southern latitude on his Antarctic expedition of … [21] He also participated, with the scientists Edward Adrian Wilson and Hartley Ferrar, in the first sledging trip from the expedition's winter quarters in McMurdo Sound, a journey which established a safe route on to the Great Ice Barrier. [156] This expedition was made into a documentary film,[157] screening as Chasing Shackleton on PBS in the United States, and Shackleton: Death or Glory elsewhere on the Discovery Channel. Ernest Henry Shackleton was a dreamer. He studied at Dulwich College at the age of 13, and although he disliked school, he placed 5th in a class of 31 students during his final term. On 9 January 1909, Shackleton and three companions—Wild, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams—reached a new Farthest South latitude of 88° 23' S, a point only 112 miles (180 km) from the Pole. After a few days, with the position at 69° 5' S, 51° 30' W, Shackleton gave the order to abandon ship, saying, "She's going down! Ernest Shackleton was born on 15 February 1874 in Kilkea, County Kildare, Ireland, to Henry Shackleton, and Henrietta Letitia Sophia Gavan and was the second of ten children. [84][85], Endurance departed from South Georgia for the Weddell Sea on 5 December, heading for Vahsel Bay. The goal was ambitious - audacious even, considering that only 10 men had ever stood at the South Pole and 5 of those had died on the way back. Consequently, Shackleton decided to risk an open-boat journey to the 720-nautical-mile-distant South Georgia whaling stations, where he knew help was available. The "Great Southern Journey",[52] as Frank Wild called it, began on 29 October 1908. While Shackleton did not achieve his ambition to cross the Antarctic he has become famous for his triumphs of honesty and humanitarianism. 1. Ireland has always been known for having large families, and even today, they are the country with the third highest fertility rate in Europe. Ernest Shackleton, however, would not have been surprised: he edited his 1914-17 journal into the book, South!, which was published three years after he had returned from Antarctica. The goal was ambitious - audacious even, considering that only 10 men had ever stood at the South Pole and 5 of those had died on the way back. ― Ernest Shackleton. [121][122], The plan changed; the destination became the Antarctic, and the project was defined by Shackleton as an "oceanographic and sub-antarctic expedition". At age 13, Shackleton enrolled at Dulwich College. He later denied Scott's claim in The Voyage of the Discovery, that he had been carried on the sledge. This book, as well as being a tribute to the explorer, was a practical effort to assist his family; Shackleton died some £40,000 in debt (equivalent to £2,200,324 in 2019[132])[135] A further initiative was the establishment of a Shackleton Memorial Fund, which was used to assist the education of his children and the support of his mother. At the age of thirteen, he entered Dulwich College. Today is the 99th anniversary of the death of famed explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton, who died in South Georgia on 5 January 1922 on his fourth expedition to the Antarctic. [98] Ship's carpenter Harry McNish made various improvements, including raising the sides, strengthening the keel, building a makeshift deck of wood and canvas, and sealing the work with oil paint and seal blood.[98]. The crew of 28 had a meteorologist, a biologist, a carpenter, a physicist, a cook, a photographer, a couple of officers, seamen, firemen, and surgeons. Shackleton then worked hard to persuade others of his wealthy friends and acquaintances to contribute, including Sir Philip Lee Brocklehurst, who subscribed £2,000 (2011 equivalent £157,000) to secure a place on the expedition;[44] author Campbell Mackellar; and Guinness baron Lord Iveagh, whose contribution was secured less than two weeks before the departure of the expedition ship Nimrod. He joined the merchant navy when he was 16 and became a master mariner. Shackleton wrote about what is needed to survive the adversities which life throws up. [154][155], The expedition very carefully matched legacy conditions, using a replica of the James Caird (named for the project's patron: the Alexandra Shackleton), period clothing (by Burberry), replica rations (both in calorific content and rough constitution), period navigational aids, and a Thomas Mercer chronometer just as Shackleton had used. "[32] There is no corroboration of Armitage's story. 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