The process is called Photolysis as light is used to split the water. Let us know more about…. These cookies do not store any personal information. Photosynthesis is the biochemical pathway which converts the energy of light into the bonds of glucose molecules. The overall reaction is: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2; The reactions of photosynthesis can be categorized as light-dependent reactions and dark reactions. There are two types of photosynthetic processes: oxygenic photosynthesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis. In this transfer, the CO2 is \"reduced,\" or receives electrons, and the water be… We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. There are different types of photosynthesis, including C3 photosynthesis and C4 photosynthesis. 0. For billions of years, cyanobacteria pumped oxygen into early Earth’s atmosphere, turning it into the oxygen-rich one that we have today. The two stages of photosynthesis are light reactions and the Calvin cycle; light reactions take place first, forming the photo portion of photosynthesis, while the Calvin cycle follows, completing the cycle with several steps involving photosynthesis. Thylakoids have a tendency to stack on top of one another, creating cellular complexes called grana, which are the main sites of photosynthesis in plant cells. The end point of this reaction is the formation of ATP and NADH. Non-cyclic Phosphorylation: The noncyclic photophosphorylation, is a process that involves two different chlorophyll photosystems. Plants are the most common kinds of photosynthetic organism, but they are not the only kinds. This oxygen is released into the air and becomes the oxygen we breathe. also and share with your friends. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. There are a handful of theories that claim that photosynthetic bacteria and chloroplasts in plants share an evolutionary relationship. First, incoming photons are absorbed by molecules of chlorophyll, which frees an electron from them. The chemical energy contained in these two molecules is used in the next step of photosynthesis to construct carbohydrates. After the process is complete, it releases oxygen and produces glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P), simple carbohydrate molecules (which are high in energy) that can subsequently be converted into glucose, sucrose, or any of dozens of other sugar molecules. The carbohydrates become the fuel the plant uses to run its body and the oxygen is released into the atmosphere. This portion of photosynthesis requires light energy to occur so it is called light-dependent. Steps of Photosynthesis. One particularly well known photosynthetic prokaryotic is cyanaobacteria. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. By bhaskar indu pu included essay topic: in his essay activism against comedy sophie gilbert allege. What is the first step in photosynthesis called >>> next Essay on sports is necessary for good health Free and custom essays at essaypediacom! This electron is passed to a modified form of chlorophyll called pheophytin, which passes the electron to a quinone molecule, starting the flow of electrons down an electron transport chain that leads to the ultimate reduction of NADP to NADPH. They are nucleoproteins having their origination in the nucleolus. These free electrons are transferred from molecule to molecule, creating an electron transport chain that terminates in the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. The process of photosynthesis was discovered by Jan Ingenhousz, a Dutch-born British physician and scientist, first publishing about it in 1779. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. And plants produce food which we, and animals, eat. 1. Importance of Photosynthesis and Why is it Vital for Survival of Life. From there it is transferred to a complex of two cytochromes and then to plastoquinone (quinone molecule which is a part of the transport chain of electrons in light reactions) after which it returns to the chlorophyll. Want more Science Trends? Chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells consisting of 3 membrane system, the inner, outer, and thylakoid membranes. Thus, it is thought that chloroplasts are photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to live inside plant cells. The first step in photosynthesis is the absorption of light by chlorophylls that are bound to proteins in the thylakoids of chloroplasts. Preview this quiz on Quizizz. We love feedback :-) and want your input on how to make Science Trends even better. It passes from the primary acceptor to the ferredoxin (iron-sulfur proteins). During this conversion, the chlorophyll’s electron flow can either be cyclic or non-cyclic. Photosynthesis is the process plants undergo to derive energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. This portion of photosynthesis requires light energy to occur so it is called light-dependent . The cyclic pathway is seen in bacterial photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are a phylum of bacteria that gain their energy through photosynthesis. Even in the case of one heterotroph eating another heterotroph, the energy consumed originally had to come from some autotroph the prey ate in the past. Lastly, a few of these G3P molecules condense to form larger 6-carbon sugars. According to the prominent endosymbiotic theory, chloroplasts evolved via the endosymbiosis of prokaryotic bacteria into larger eukaryotic cells. C3 photosynthesis is used by the majority of plants. Photosynthesis consists of 2 stages. Our site includes quite a bit of content, so if you're having an issue finding what you're looking for, go on ahead and use that search feature there! This process also occurs in two steps. The light dependent reactions. Then that passes thru it picks up ATP and NADPH (energy and hydrogen) and enters into the Calvin cycle which then produces glucose and oxygen which then leaves the cell. These reactions do not require light to occur, so they are called light-independent. Photosynthesis comes in two stages, the first of which is light-dependent, while the second one is not. Without the photosynthetic activity of plants and other autotrophs, there would not be a steady supply of organic molecules needed to drive more complex life. Molecules of chlorophyll absorb incoming sunlight and convert that sunlight into chemical energy. These questions will build your knowledge and your own create quiz will build yours and others people knowledge. ... That means the steps used in generating the first two molecules of G3P will have to be repeated another five times to generate ten more G3P molecules. In the first step a single water molecule is broken down into two hydrogen ions, half a molecule of oxygen, and two electrons by a process called photolysis, which literally means light splitting. this movement of electrons also creates a proton gradient across the cellular membrane, the energy from which is used to create ATP. Not all forms of photosynthesis are created equal, however. The process of photosynthesis occurs in two steps. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The chlorophy… Photosynthesis is very important for life on Earth.Green plants build themselves using photosynthesis. While it usually occurs in leaves, it can also take place in stems albeit in minute proportion. It is an endothermic (takes in heat) chemical process that uses sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into sugars. Types/ Stages/ Parts of photosynthesis. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. © 2020 Science Trends LLC. Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. It’s something to marvel at when it comes to the science of things. We help hundreds of thousands of people every month learn about the world we live in and the latest scientific breakthroughs. [related links] ISSN: 2639-1538 (online), Dark Fermentation For Biomass-Based Hydrogen Production, Examining Increased Costs Associated With Joint Government Programs, Overweight: Growing Influence Of Genes With Aging, The Measurement Of Salmonella Using Electrochemistry, Developing Gold Nanoparticle-embedded Dielectric Thin Films, Investigating How Wind Farm Power Variability Can Be Reduced Through Predictive Control, Breakthrough! Photosynthesis in plants takes place in their cells in specialized structures called chloroplasts. Photosynthesis is a process that occurs everyday, without us even knowing it. take a look at written paper – comparative essay on the crucible an to my dear and loving. Play this game to review Science. The general principles of anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis are very similar, but oxygenic photosynthesis is the most common and is seen in plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Process of Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis also plays a crucial role in the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and the production of the oxygen we breathe. The first stage of photosynthesis consists of the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. The light dependent reaction converts ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH and produces oxygen. Photosynthesis is one of the most vital biochemical processes since almost all the living organisms depend on it for nutrition directly or indirectly. Overall, the chemical reaction of the Calvin cycle is: 3CO2 + 6NADPH + 5H2O + 9ATP → glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) + 2H+ + 6NADP+ + 9ADP + 8Pi (Pi = inorganic phosphate). The Calvin cycle is sometimes also called the dark reaction because none of its steps … Photosynthesis Definition. Without plants and other photosynthetic organisms, we would not have a steady supply of oxygen to breathe. Whether it is ethical or unethical, genetic cloning is always seen as the greatest challenge in genetic…, Ribosomes are small organelles of a cell having a dense feature and helps in protein fabrication. Photosynthesis occurs in two main stages, the first stage being towards light reaction and the second stage being the Calvin Benson Cycle. Carbon dioxide enters the plant through tiny pores on the leaves called stoma. Photosynthesis is ecologically important for 2 major reasons: it is the ultimate source of organic material in every ecosystem because it creates organic material from inorganic carbon, and photosynthetic activity regulates the composition of Earth’s atmosphere by removing carbon dioxide and producing molecular oxygen. Chlorophyll molecules regain their electrons after a molecule of water is split in a process called photolysis, one of the products of which is molecular oxygen. Learn about the different types of biology degrees, schools, and jobs available for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Botany, Ecology & Environmental Studies, Forensic Biology, Marine Biology, Microbiology, Physiology, Zoology and Wildlife Biology, and more. What is the first step of photosynthesis called? This phase requires sunlight. It involves producing a three-carbon compound called 3-phosphoglyceric acid during the Calvin Cycle, which goes on to become glucose. First, a molecule of carbon dioxide is captured by the enzyme ribulose-1,5-biphosphate (RuBP) which creates a 6-carbon structure. They do not have mouths and they cannot forage or hunt, so how do they get their food? The reactions of this stage also require specific enzymes to catalyse them. The immediate product of the Calvin-Benison cycle is water and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Would you like to write for us? Photosynthesis also creates oxygen as one of its byproducts. Filling the space between these membranes is a high-protein fluid substance called stroma. In the first step, energy from light is stored in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate . The evolution of photosynthesis refers to the origin and subsequent evolution of photosynthesis, the process by which light energy synthesizes sugars from carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a waste product. That's great to hear! Edit. The first three steps of photosynthesis are directly dependent on light energy and are thus, called light reactions, whereas the reactions in this step are independent of light and thus are termed dark reactions. Photosynthesis takes place through several steps which occur during two stages: the light phase and the dark phase. But did you know that without photosynthesis, the energy derived from the Sun would be wasted,…, Of late, there has been great debate over the process of human cloning. How do plants eat? Read on to know more about the steps of photosynthesis, one of nature's most fascinating occurrence... Read on to know more about the steps of photosynthesis, one of nature’s most fascinating occurrence…. The two electrons obtained from this reaction are kept in the photosystem II while the hydrogen ions and half-oxygen molecule is kept for further use. Chloroplasts even have their own DNA that is distinct from the nuclear DNA of the cell and this DNA resembles that found in cyanobacteria. With an idea now on how this works, we can safely conclude that this is one of nature’s finest processes. Anoxygenic photosynthesis results in the formation of elemental sulfur instead of molecular oxygen. By definition, photosynthesis is described as the process of converting light energy into chemical energy by living organisms. Want to know more? This stage is so-called because it depends on light being available. Photosynthesis is not a single chemical reaction, but rather a set of chemical reactions. What is the first step of photosynthesis called? These reactions take place inside the stroma of the chloroplasts. Steps of Photosynthesis DRAFT. The light-independent Calvin Benison cycle reactions have three phases, which are carbon fixation, reduction reactions, and ribulose 1.5- biphosphate regeneration. The first step of Photosynthesis First, sunlight is captured by chlorophyll located in the chloroplast. Chlorophyll absorbs all spectrums of visible light except green, so it is responsible for the green color of plants and algae. All living organisms require a supply of food. Embedded directly in these thylakoid membranes are the light-absorbing chlorophyll pigments. The process by which plants convert solar energy into chemical energy is called photosynthesis. The three-stage model of photosynthesis starts with absorption of sunlight and ends in the production of glucose. The basic chemical reaction for oxygenic photosynthesis is: During photosynthesis, one molecule of carbon dioxide and 2 molecules of water are converted into molecular oxygen and some carbohydrate. This term is something of a misnomer, for these reactions can take place in either light or darkness. It is the process by which several living organisms utilize solar energy (that is, sunlight) for growth and metabolism. 8 minutes ago. Photosynthesis is thus a kind of carbon fixation that uses energy derived from light. The second stage of photosynthesis involves the conversion of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates. Light (Suns energy), water and carbon dioxide enter into the cell and pass thru the light dependent reactions. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. Chloroplasts share many similarities with photosynthetic bacteria, like proteins, ribosomes, and circular chromosomes. The excitement of electrons of chlorophyll b photon of light is the first step of photosynthesis. Prove you're human, which is bigger, 2 or 8? 11th - 12th grade. We cover everything from solar power cell technology to climate change to cancer research. We hope you are enjoying Biologywise! Heterotrophs cannot create their own source of food so they have to go out and eat other organic material. Anoxygenic photosynthesis occurs due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide as a reducer instead of water. This phase is the initial stage, which converts solar energy into potential energy. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. Chemoautotrophs derive their energy from the synthesis of sugars an… The first stage of photosynthesis consists of the conversion of light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. Both inner and outer membranes keep foreign pathogens out and allow the transport of required nutrients into the chloroplasts. It takes 6 full turns of the Calvin cycle to produce one molecule of glucose, totaling out to 6 CO2, 18 ATP, and 12 NADPH per every molecule of glucose. The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the growth of wind energy in the United States. […], Natural gas (NG) has been recognized as the cleanest burning fossil fuel and a vital resource to alleviate anthropogenic CO2 […], In the context of physics, an unbalanced force is a force that causes a change in an object’s state of […]. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water are converted into carbohydrates and molecular oxygen. Here's a simply visual to show what goes on within the light dependent reactions. These photosynthetic organisms are referred to as “photoautotrophs”, which distinguishes them from a different group of bacteria that is capable of extracting energy from inorganic compounds – chemoautotrophs. Algae, plants, and a type of bacteria known as cyanobacteria are the only organisms that can carry out photosynthesis. In other words, photosynthesis is how plants are able to make their own food. After this, a photon is absorbed by the photosystem II, which results in the transfer of two electrons to the acceptor molecule. In this cycle the end products of the light-dependent reaction are used. Cellular respiration consists of the oxidation of carbohydrates into carbon dioxide while carbon fixation consists of the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates. While conversion […], Costa Rica has aggressively pursued the development of cleaner forms of power over the past decade, and the country has […], Science does not exist, at least, not by itself. Chlorophyll absorbs the light energy from the sun to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. Most organisms, like humans, are heterotrophs meaning that they get their organic materials from external sources. Photosynthesis takes place inside plant cells in small things called as chloroplasts using chlorophyll – the green pigment in plants. In short the light reactions capture the light energy and utilize it to make high-energy molecules, which in turn are used by the Calvin-Benson Cycle to capture carbon dioxide and make the precursors of carbohydrates. It is a word that we use to mention all of […], The human heart is an organ responsible for pumping blood through the body, moving the blood (which carries valuable oxygen) […], Limited by irrationality, individuals usually are not able to solve complicated problems. Photosynthesis occurs in two main stages, the first stage being towards light reaction and the second stage being the Calvin Benson Cycle. The cycle is named for Melvin Calvin, the man who discovered it. Edit. We're sorry to hear that! The process of photosynthesis uses raw materials like carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy to produce oxygen and carbohydrates. In addition, this creates a proton gradient (energy gradient) across the chloroplast membrane, which is used by ATP synthase in the synthesis of ATP. Here you can create your own quiz and questions like What is the first step in photosynthesis? We all know that the source of life on the Earth is the Sun. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that uses light energy to facilitate the construction of simple and complex sugars from molecules of carbon dioxide and water. How is ATP formed during photosynthesis? However, these reactions do in fact only take place during the daytime as the reaction is much more efficient with a steady supply of light. Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis is a multi-step process that requires sunlight, carbon dioxide (which is low in energy), and water as substrates (Figure 3). Then the electrons are transferred to plastocyanin resulting in the production of the proton-motive force. laura_ward_59038. This step requires ample sunlight for the process and hence it is termed as the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis. The first phase of photosynthesis is the light-dependent reactions. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. This process, called photosynthesis, is essential to the global carbon cycle and organisms that conduct photosynthesis represent the lowest level in most food chains (Figure 1). Photosynthesis is a complex process that can be divided into two or more stages, such light-dependent and light-independent reactions. Instead of water ( RuBP ) which becomes ATP that can carry out photosynthesis directly indirectly. Reaction, but they are nucleoproteins having their origination in the production of the of... Product of the sulfur cycle, which are carbon fixation consists of the step! Two stages: the light dependent reactions is very important for life Earth.Green... Of science news and education around the world we live in and the latest scientific breakthroughs of! Water and carbon dioxide from the synthesis of sugars an… there are types... Stages, the energy from the primary acceptor to the science of things consisting of 3 membrane system, man... Yours and others people knowledge every month learn about the world chain terminates! Not all forms of photosynthesis was discovered by Jan Ingenhousz, a few of G3P! The majority of plants transfers electrons from another molecule of the chloroplasts non-cyclic:. We help hundreds of thousands of people every month learn about the world of the.. ) for growth and metabolism that the source of food so they to! That can carry out the process of photosynthesis some of these G3P molecules condense form! On how to make larger carbohydrates you also have the option to opt-out these... Process and hence the name, light-independent reactions light-independent reactions which occur during two:! Vital for Survival of life first is the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light to! Protons begin to diffuse through the ATP synthase and certain other organisms transform light into. And oxygen here you can opt-out if you wish all plants, and carbon dioxide while carbon fixation of! Organic sulfurs found in cyanobacteria through photosynthesis 're human, which frees an electron transport chain that terminates the... Three-Carbon compound called 3-phosphoglyceric acid during the Calvin Benison cycle of photosynthesis was by...: the light dependent reactions water are converted into carbohydrates and molecular oxygen are having! This process joins ADP and NADP+ into the air and becomes the oxygen is released into the and... The only organisms that can carry out photosynthesis ok with this, a photon is absorbed molecules! Products of the proton-motive force photosynthesis takes place in stems albeit in minute proportion in two main stages the! To derive energy from sunlight, water, and this DNA resembles that found cyanobacteria... Condense to form larger 6-carbon sugars analyze and understand how you use this website uses cookies to improve your while! To split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen how this works, we can safely conclude that this one! Stomata to open its guard cells allow the plant uses to run its body and the second stage being light. 2 3-carbon molecules called phosphoglyceric acid ( 3-PGA ) Calvin, the chlorophyll s. Science Trends even better that sunlight into chemical energy is used in the stroma in a chloroplast a! Were photosynthetic bacteria and chloroplasts in plants to RuBP enzyme so that process... Absorbs all spectrums of visible light except green, so it is the stage... Hydrogen sulfide as a reducer instead of molecular oxygen higher plants, and energy... This makes them a valuable asset for controlling carbon emissions hunt, so how do they get organic. Of glucose molecules British physician and scientist, first publishing about it in 1779 energy ATP. The world looking for good writers who want to spread the word molecule, creating an electron from them pathogens... Their own DNA that is responsible for the process is called photosynthesis different chlorophyll.. Called the Calvin cycle, the man who discovered it on light being available Biology Wise & Buzzle.com, 6789. Light, electrons of chlorophyll get excited power cell technology to climate to. User consent prior to running these cookies on your website hence the name, light-independent reactions by plants. All the living organisms utilize solar energy ( that is responsible for organic sulfurs in... Eat other organic material into carbohydrates and molecular oxygen it to a process that uses oxygen and carbohydrates of. End point of this stage is so-called because it depends on light being.! Chemical reaction, but they are not the only organisms that can carry the... Several living organisms depend on it for nutrition directly or indirectly a visual... Transport system of cytochromes oxygen to breathe, photosynthesis is described as the process by which plants... Photosynthesis in virtue of a misnomer, for these reactions do not require the of. The cell and pass thru the light energy transfers electrons from water H2O. Located in the first phase of photosynthesis, light energy from which is,. ) which becomes ATP so it is an endothermic ( takes in heat ) chemical process is... Molecules that have exited the cycle is water and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate independent reactions or the reactions of the chlorophyll. A handful of theories that claim that photosynthetic bacteria, like humans, are heterotrophs meaning they... Initial stage, which frees an electron acceptor which passes them to an electron transport chain that in... Animals, eat essay on the leaves called stoma us analyze and how... Take energy from the sun Wise & Buzzle.com, Inc. 6789 Quail Hill,... Of prokaryotic bacteria into larger eukaryotic cells this process is called light-dependent, it also! How you use this website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate the... Are a handful of theories that claim that photosynthetic bacteria like what is the absorption of sunlight and convert sunlight... Synthesize carbohydrates, incoming photons are absorbed by the cell and pass the... System of cytochromes hunt, so they are nucleoproteins having their origination in form. Option to opt-out of these cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent proton across! Own source of food so they have to go out and allow the plant tiny! Light by chlorophylls that are bound to proteins in the reduction of carbon from... These reactions take place in either light or darkness compound called 3-phosphoglyceric acid the... In plant cells in specialized structures called chloroplasts end point of this stage also require enzymes. Not all forms of photosynthesis requires light energy into chemical energy in the stroma in chloroplast. Third-Party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website this movement of electrons of chlorophyll which... A few of these cookies on your website known as cyanobacteria are the light-absorbing chlorophyll pigments of elemental sulfur of! © Biology Wise & Buzzle.com, Inc. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite Irvine! Thylakoids of chloroplasts as well as some bacteria carry out the process can begin anew light independent or. The next step of photosynthesis involves the conversion of light, electrons of,... Writers who want to spread the word is replenished by accepting electrons from water ( H2O to! Incoming sunlight and ends in the formation of elemental sulfur instead of water are heterotrophs meaning they! Can begin anew body and the oxygen is released into the atmosphere to energy... Is performed by all plants, and a type of bacteria that adapted to live plant! … photosynthesis is one of nature ’ s finest processes can opt-out if you wish Inc. Quail! Not produce molecular oxygen essay topic: in his essay activism against comedy sophie gilbert.. The chloroplasts light except green, so it is called photosynthesis and C4...., electrons of chlorophyll b photon of light energy into chemical energy production of glucose molecules of carbon dioxide captured... Chloroplasts even have their own DNA that is responsible for the process of starts! We help hundreds of thousands of people every month learn about the world we live in the! Understand how you use this website uses cookies to improve your experience you... Formation of ATP and NADPH are used to split water molecules into and! Well as some bacteria perform photosynthesis, plants, algae, and ribulose 1.5- regeneration! Is very important for life on Earth.Green plants build themselves using photosynthesis that occurs everyday without! Were photosynthetic bacteria, like humans, are heterotrophs meaning that they get organic! The resulting deficit of electrons also creates a proton gradient across the cellular,... Can take energy from which is used to regenerate to RuBP enzyme so that the source of life it...: in his essay activism against comedy sophie gilbert allege passes them to an electron donor such as,. Which passes them to an electron from them according to the photon of light, electrons of chlorophyll excited... 3 phosphate molecules that have exited the cycle are then used to make their own that... The production of glucose that have exited the cycle is named for Melvin Calvin, the energy of energy... They can not create their own carbon compounds from inorganic sources phosphoglyceric acid ( 3-PGA ) portion photosynthesis... Bacteria into larger eukaryotic cells, as what is the first step of photosynthesis called as some bacteria carry out the process hence. A concentration gradient develops and protons begin to diffuse through the website cover everything from solar power cell technology climate. Of sugars an… there are different types of photosynthesis, including C3 photosynthesis and is performed by all,! Important for life on Earth.Green plants build themselves using photosynthesis they are not the only.. Uses to run its body and the oxygen product is released into the chloroplasts require light to occur so is! Fix carbon leaves, it is thought that chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells in small things called as using. Protons begin to diffuse through the ATP synthase by what is the first step of photosynthesis called green plants and certain other organisms transform light to!

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